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Tagalog Conjunctions: 7 Unique But Easy Types

April 9, 2022

Wanna level up your simple Tagalog sentences to compound or complex sentences? Why not learn these essential Tagalog conjunctions today?

When you start learning the Tagalog or Filipino language, you'll begin with simple sentences. But, if you wanna improve your sentence and use more complicated words and phrases, then it's better to learn the Tagalog conjunctions.

In this blog, I will walk you through a simple lesson about Tagalog conjunctions. You will also see how the Tagalog or Filipino language is different from the English language. So, let's start learning about conjunction.

 

Conjunctions In Tagalog

In the English language, conjunctions are words used to connect words, clauses, and sentences. There are different types of conjunctions - coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions.

In the Tagalog or Filipino language, the word used to connect words, clauses, and sentences is called Pang-ugnay, but this is quite tricky because there are three types of pang-ugnay, and some of them do not have English counterparts. Here are the different pang-ugnay in the Tagalog or Filipino language:

A. Pang-angkop

Pang-angkop connects two words to make it sound more beautiful and easy to pronounce. The English language does not have an equivalent for this because this has something to do about the spelling of the words. The word "angkop" in Filipino can mean"adapt." So, pang-angkop is used to let the word "adapt" to the other one. There are three types ofPang-angkop:

"Na"

The pang-angkop "na" is used when the first word ends with a consonant. See examples below:

TagalogEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
masarap na pagkaindelicious foodKumain kami ng masarap na pagkain sa Pilipinas .
(We ate delicious food in the Philippines.)
mabilis na trena fast trainSumakay kami sa mabilis na tren mula Taft papuntang Quezon Avenue.
(We rode a fast train from Taft to Quezon.)

"-Ng"

The next pang-angkop is "-ng". You might be wondering what's the dash in the beginning means. This dash means that there's a word before it. But, when you're going to put it in a word, you must remove the dash already. The pang-angkop "-ng" is used when the first word ends with a vowel. See examples below:

TagalogEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
maganda (-ng)/ magandang bansaa beautiful countryAng Pilipinas ay isang magandang bansa.
(The Philippines is a beautiful country.)
wika (-ng)/ wikang FilipinoFilipino languageAng wikang Filipino ay madaling pag-aralan.
(The Filipino language is easy to learn.)

"-G"

The last pang-angkop is "-g". Again, the dash before the letter g indicates that there's a word before it. This pang-angkop is used when the first word ends with the letter "n." See examples below:

TagalogEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
mamahalin(-g)/ mamahaling gamitexpensive thingsKami ay bumili ng mamahaling gamit sa mga mall ng Pilipinas.
(We bought expensive things in the malls of the Philippines.)
mahinhin(-g)/ mahinhing dalagamodest girlIn the traditional culture, ang kababaihan sa Pilipinas ay pinalalaki bilang mahinhing dalaga.

(In the traditional culture, women in the Philippines are raised to be modest girls.)

B. Pang-ukol

The next type of pang-ugnay is pang-ukol or preposition. A preposition is a word or set of words that come before a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to indicate a direction, place, location, time, spatial relationships, location, or to introduce an object. We will discuss it further in another blog but for now, take a look at each example below:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjunctionsEnglish Translation
sain
ngof
kay/kina
(kay is used for the singular; kina is for plural)
to
laban sa/ laban kay
("sa" is used for things/ "kay" is for person)
against to
hinggil sa/ hinggil kayregarding to/with
tungkol sa/ tungkol kayaccording to
ukol sa/ukol kayabout
alinsunod sa/alinsunod kayin accordance to/ in accordance with

C. Pangatnig

After learning the first two pang-ugnay, let us learn pangatnig. Pangatnig is a term that connects two or more words. They link words, sentences, or clauses together. Like what was mentioned above, the English language has three (3) types of conjunctions - coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions.

But, take note that Filipino conjunctions are categorized in a unique way. Filipino conjunctions are divided into groups based on how they are employed in sentences or the types of phrases or clauses to which they refer.

Let us discuss the different pangatnig like how you learn it in English so you won't be too confused.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Tagalog Conjunctions | Coordinating Conjunctions

A coordinating conjunction is a word or group of words that connect elements that have equal weight or importance and are grammatically alike. The abbreviation FANBOYS stands for the seven most common coordinating conjunctions in English: for, and, neither, nor, but, or, yet, and so.

For - Sapagkat

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Gustong-gusto kong gumamit ng mga produktong Pilipino sapagkat maganda ang kalidad ng kanilang mga produkto. I love using Filipino products for the quality of their products is good.

Note: The Filipino word "sapagkat" and "dahil" can also be translated as "because" in English.

And - At, At saka

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Pumunta kami sa magagandang lugar at nanoood kami ng concert ni Regine Velasquez.We go to many beautiful places and we watched the concert by Regine Velasquez.

Note: The word "at saka" adds more formality to speech. This conjunction can also be translated as "moreover"and "in addition to that" in English.

Nor - Ni, at Hindi, Ni hindi

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Hindi ko gusto ang makasakit ng damdamin ng mga lokal ni ang magpakita ng kawalang respeto.I don't wanna hurt the feelings of the locals nor to disrespect them.

Note: Filipinos do not frequently speak like this. You'll seldom hear this in casual conversation. For beginners, there are lots of ways that you can express yourself without using this conjunction.

Many people get confused about this, even a child beginning to learn Tagalog. In the Philippines, the word "ni" is also one of the pronouns. Because of this, you really have to understand the context before determining if the word "ni" is used as a conjunction or a pronoun.

But - Pero, Datapwat, Ngunit, Subalit

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Kukuha na sana kami ng mamahaling hotel ngunit kulang ang gaming pera.We are about to book an expensive hotel but our money is not enough.

Note: These words have the same meaning. The only difference is where and how they are used. Filipinos commonly use "pero" in everyday conversation, while the rest are usually used in formal situations, books, and written formal essays. You'll seldom hear Filipinos use "datapwat" in casual conversations.

Or - O, O kaya

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Kakain ba tayo sa Jollibee o susubok tayo ng bagong fastfood?Are we going to eat in Jollibee or we will try new fast food?

Note: This coordinating conjunction is used the same way in English. It's not hard to remember because it sounds and is spelled almost like the English word. This is also commonly used when choosing something.

Yet/Nevertheless/ Nonetheless- Gayon pa man, Gayumpaman, Gayunman

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Nahirapan siyang pag-aaralan ang wikang Filipino gayunpaman, nagawa niya pa ring maging bihasa sa pagsasalita ng wikang ito.He struggled when studying the Filipino language yet he still became an expert in speaking this language.

Note: This is also not common among native speakers to use every day. In daily conversations, they simply use the word "pero" because it is easier to use and also has the same meaning.

So - Kaya, Kung kaya’t

Example Sentence:

TagalogEnglish Translation
Hindi ko alam kung paano pumunta ng Maynila kaya nagtanong ako sa mga tao sa paligid.I don't know how to get to Maynila that's why I asked the people around.

Note: The word "kaya" is the most frequently used form, while "kung kaya't" means "so that" or "that's why" in English.

Here is the summary of the coordinating conjunctions you have learned above:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjunctionsEnglish Translation
sapagkat, dahil, dahil safor
at, at sakaand
ni, at hindi, ni hindinor
pero, datapwat, ngunit, subalitbut
o, o kayaor
gayon pa man, gayumpaman, gayunmanyet/nevertheless/nonetheless
kaya, kung kaya’tso

Correlative Conjunctions

Tagalog Conjunctions | Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions are used in pairs. They're utilized to link two grammatically similar but equally important or weighted parts.

Either…or - Man... o

TagalogEnglish Translation
ibro man o app, makatutulong pa rin ito sa pagkEither book or app can help you learn the Filipino language.

Whether…or/neither…or - Maging... o

TagalogEnglish Translation
Maging ang pagtitipid o pagdidiyeta ay hindi makapipigil sa iyong tumikim ng mga pagkaing Pilipino.Neither saving up nor taking a diet can stop you to taste Filipino food.

Neither..nor - Hindi…ni, ni…ni

TagalogEnglish Translation
Ni tumawag ni mangumusta ay di man lang nya ginawa.He can't call nor ask about how I am doing.

Both…and - Kapwa…at, parehong…at

TagalogEnglish Translation
Sa kulturang Pilipino, kapwa gobyerno at mamamayan ay may tungkulin sa bayan.In the Filipino culture, both government and citizen have responsibilities to their nation.

Not only…but (also) - Hindi lamang…kundi (pati)

TagalogEnglish Translation
Ang pagsasalita ng wikang Filipino ay hindi lamang nakapagpapadali ng iyong paglalakbay kundi nakatutulong din itong bumuo ng koneksyon sa mga tao.Speaking the Filipino language not only makes your travel experience easy but also helps to build connections among people.

Here is the summary of the correlative conjunctions you have learned above:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjunctionsEnglish Translation
OEither…or
Maging… oWhether…or/neither…or
Hindi…ni, ni…niNeither..nor
Kapwa…at, parehong…atBoth…and
Hindi lamang…kundi (pati)Not only…but (also)

Subordinating Conjunctions

Tagalog Conjunctions | Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a dependent clause (sugnay na hindi makapag-iisa) to an independent clause (sugnay na makapag-iisa). The subordinating conjunction precedes the dependent clause.

Subordinating conjunction transforms a clause into an element whose context determines meaning. Subordinate clauses can be found at the start or middle of a sentence. Here is a list of subordinating conjunctions in Filipino.

Although - Bagaman/ Bagamat

TagalogEnglish Translation
Bagaman magkakaiba ang mga sinusoportahan nating kandidato, kailangan pa rin nating irespeto ang isa't isa.Although we support different candidates, we should still respect each other.

Note:

The dependent clause is "Bagaman magkakaiba ang mga sinusoportahan nating kandidato,". The word "bagaman" is not commonly used in normal conversations. You can usually hear this in the news, teacher, and other formal platforms.

Even Though - Kahit

TagalogEnglish Translation
Kahit na mahirap makapasok sa isang prestihiyosong unibersidad sa Pilipinas, ginagawa pa rin ng mga Pilipino ang lahat ng kanilang makakaya para makapasok.Even though it's hard to enter a university in the Philippines, Filipinos still try their best to get in.

When, At The Time That - Nang

TagalogEnglish Translation
Tapos na ang concert nang siya ay dumating.The concert has just finished when he/she arrived.

Note: You might be confused about the other Filipino word "ng" because these two words are pronounced the same way, but they have different meanings and usage. The word "ng" is a preposition, while "nang" is in conjunction.

Because - Dahil

TagalogEnglish Translation
Ang Pilipinas ay tinaguriang "Texting Capital of the World" dahil sa malaking bilang ng kanilang ipinadadalang text message sa bawat araw.The Philippines is considered as the "Texting Capital of the World" because of the volume of messages they send every day.

Ang Pilipinas ay tinaguriang "Texting Capital of the World" dahil sa malaking bilang ng kanilang ipinadadalang text message sa bawat araw. - The Philippines is considered as "Texting Capital of the World" because of the volume of messages they send everyday.

Than - Kaysa

TagalogEnglish Translation
Mabuti na ang may kaunting kaalaman sa pagsasalita ng wikang Filipino kaysa mahirapang makipag-usap sa mga lokal.It's good to have a little knowledge of speaking the Filipino language than have a hard time speaking with the locals.

Here is the summary of the subordinating conjunctions you have learned above:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjunctionsEnglish Translation
Bagaman/ BagamatAlthough
KahitEven Though
NangWhen, At The Time That
DahilBecause
KaysaThan

 

How Do Filipinos Learn Conjunctions?

The one you have learned above is how conjunctions are taught in English, but in the Philippines, they have different types of conjunctions. In fact, they have more than three (3) types of conjunctions. Here are the 7 different types of Filipino or Tagalog conjunctions.

Tagalog Conjunctions | Pangatnig

Paninsay - These are used for connecting two contrasting ideas.

Example:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
pero
ngunit
subalit
butKukuha na sana kami ng mamahaling hotel ngunit kulang ang gaming pera.

(We are about to book an expensive hotel but our money is not enough.)
kahiteven thoughKahit na mahirap makapasok sa isang prestihiyosong unibersidad sa Pilipinas, ginagawa pa rin ng mga Pilipino ang lahat ng kanilang makakaya para makapasok.

(Even though it's hard to enter a university in the Philippines, Filipinos still try their best to get in.)
bagamanalthoughBagaman magkakaiba ang mga sinusoportahan nating kandidato, kailangan pa rin nating irespeto ang isa't isa.

(Although we support different candidates, we should still respect each other.)
habangwhileGusto ko pang mamasyal habang ang iba ay gusto nang matulog.

(I still want to travel while everybody wants to sleep already.)

Pananhi - The word "pananhi" came from the word "sanhi," which means "cause" in English. This conjunction connects words, phrases, or clauses that indicate the causes and effects of events.

Examples:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
dahilbecauseDahil sa mga talentadong Pilipino at magagandang tanawin ng bansa unti-unting nakilala ang kulturang Pilipino.

(Because of the talented Filipinos and beautiful sites in the country, the Filipino culture has slowly been recognized.)
sapagkatbecauseAng Pilipinas ay nagdiwang sapagkat nanalo si Hidilyn Diaz ng gintong medalya sa Olympics.

(The Philippines celebrated becayse Hidilyn Diaz won a gold medal in the Olympics.)
kaya namanthat's whyMalaki ang impluwensiya ng mga bansang kanluranin sa kagandahan sa mga Pilipino kaya naman marami ang sumasailalim sa mga operasyon.
(The Westerns have a huge influence on the beauty standards among Filipinos that's why lots of people are undergoing surgeries.)

Pamukod - The word "pamukod" came from the word "bukod," which means "separate" in English. This pangatnig is used if you have something to separate.

Examples:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
magingwhether; neitherMaging ang pagtitipid o pagdidiyeta ay hindi makapipigil sa iyong tumikim ng mga pagkaing Pilipino.

(Neither saving up nor taking a diet can stop you to taste Filipino food.)
oorKakain ba tayo sa Jollibee o susubok tayo ng bagong fastfood?

(Are we going to eat in Jollibee or we will try new a fast food?)
ninorHindi ko gusto ang makasakit ng damdamin ng mga lokal ni ang magpakita ng kawalang respeto.

( I don't wanna hurt the feelings of the locals nor I don't want to show a lack of respect.)

Panlinaw - This conjunction is used to clarify a statement. The word "linaw" means "clear".

Examples:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
samakatuwidthereforeAng lalaki ay nag-aral ng mga salitang Tagalog na may kinalaman sa pakikipagpanayam bago pumunta sa opisina samakatuwid, hindi siya nahirapan noong siya'y tinatanong na.

(The guy studied the Filipino words related to interviews before going to the office therefore he didn't have a hard time when he was being asked.)
kung gayonif that's the caseNapansin kong handa na ang lahat, kung gayon, maaari na tayong umalis.

(I've noticed that everyone is ready, if that's the case, we may now leave.)
kayaso; that's whyNarinig kong masarap ang balut kaya sinubukan ko ito.

(I heard that balut is really delicious so I tried it.)
ibig sabihinthis means thatMaraming tagahanga ang SB19 sa iba't ibang panig ng mundo ibig sabihin, marami na ang nakakikilala ng kanilang mga awitin.

(There are lots of SB19 fans in different parts of the world which means that lots of people already heard their songs,)

Panubali - Panubali is used in stating probability or doubt. The word "panubali" came from "pasubali," which means dissent or reservation.

Examples:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
kungifKung maganda ang panahon, maaari mong akyatin ang iba't ibang bundok sa Pilipinas

(If the weather is fine, you can go hiking in different mountains in the Philippines.)
bakamaybe; perhapsNaliligaw ako, baka maaari mo akong tulungan.

(I'm lost, perhaps you can help me.)
kapagwhenKapag inaral mo ang wikang Pilipino, marami kang matutuhan tungkol sa kanilang kultura.

(When you studied the Filipino language, you'll know more about their culture.)
sakaliin case/ if by chanceSakaling ikaw ay maligaw, hanapin lang ang pinakamalapit na istasyon ng tren.

(If by chance you got lost, look for the nearest train station.)

Panapos - The word "panapos" came from the word "tapos," which means "finish" or "end". From this, you can imply that this type of conjunction is used to indicate the end of a sentence or speech.

Examples:

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
sa wakasfinallySa wakas, nakarating na rin ako ng Pilipinas!

(Finally, I'm here in Pilipinas!)
sa kabuuoanin total/in generalAng karanasan ko sa Pilipinas ay puno ng iba't ibang karanasan, sa kabuoan, naging masaya ito.

(My Pilipinas journey is full of adventure, in general, it was fun.)
sa bandang huliin the endNaghanap kami ng murang matutuluyan, sa bandang huli, pinili naming manatili sa isang hotel sa Makati.

(We are looking for affordable accommodation, in the end, we stayed in a hotel in Makati.)

Panimbang - This type of conjunction is used to connect words, phrases, or clauses that have the same meaning or weight.

Filipino/Tagalog ConjnctionsEnglish TranslationExample Sentence
at/at saka / sakaandPumunta kami sa magagandang lugar at nanoood kami ng concert ni Regine Velasquez.

(We go to many beautiful places and we watched the concert of Regine Velasquez.)
gaya ng/ katuladlikeMaraming magagandang tanawin sa Pilipinas gaya ng Hundred Islands, Palawan, Boracay, at Mayon Volcano.

(There are lots of beautiful sites in the Philippines like Hundred Islands, Palawan, Boracay, and Mayon Volcano.)
patialsoMasarap ang mga pagkain sa Pilipinas pati ang mga street food ay katakam-takam.

(The food in the Philippines is delicious also, the street food is really mouthwatering.)
gayundinand also, as well asMaganda ang mga gusaling makikita sa mga siyudad ng Pilipinas gayundin ang mga natural na tanawing makikita sa mga probinsya.

( The buildings that you can see in the cities of the Philippines are beautiful as also the natural sites that can be seen in their provinces.)

I know that learning these conjunctions is quite a challenge but if you have comments, questions or clarifications, feel free to comment below this post. I'll be more than willing to answer.

 

Did You Have A Hard Time?

Learning Tagalog or the Filipino language is hard at first. There are different words with the same spelling but have different meanings. There are words that have multiple meanings, but, one thing for sure is true about the Filipino language, the pronunciation is easy to learn.

When you decide to learn about conjunctions, it means that you're already at another level of learning Tagalog. You're not a beginner anymore because conjunctions are used to form compound and complex sentences. You are also on your way to learning how to speak Filipino like a native speaker, so if you need more practice and help, Ling App can surely be your language partner.

With various topics and engaging activities available, you'll develop you'll surely love your language learning journey. Lessons are also backed with linguistic research and developed by actual native speakers. So, do yourself a favor and start learning Tagalog now!

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