Cantonese vs Mandarin? You may be one of the many people who are wondering what language is spoken all over China, including Chinatowns. If you are thinking that the answer is Chinese, well, you are not wrong. But did you know that Chinese is not a single language? It is a number of dialect groups. Do you know what Chinese dialect is mainly spoken about? In this blog, we will learn about two of these dialects and their differences.
Before we go into the difference between Cantonese and Mandarin, let us discover what the Chinese Language is. Chinese is an umbrella language term that includes multiple dialects like Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka, and more. These Chinese dialects are united by a common writing system. But the most important thing you need to know is that these spoken Chinese are different and not mutually intelligible.
Are you still confused? Well, try to think about it this way. Cabbage is a type of vegetable. Cantonese is a form of Chinese. I hope that it is clear to you.
Cantonese And Mandarin: What Are The Differences?
You may be one of those people who are wondering what are the differences between the two dialects. Like what is stated above, the Chinese language is composed of different dialects. Cantonese and Mandarin are not two languages, rather, they are two of the many Chinese dialects. In this blog, we will focus on the difference between the two in the case of the place where it is being spoken, the written characters, the way of speaking, and the tones.
1. Places They Are Spoken
Where are Mandarin and Cantonese being widely spoken? One of the differences between the two is the places they are spoken.
First, let us talk about Mandarin. Mandarin is the official language of Mainland China. It is widely spoken throughout the country, which is why it is called the lingua franca or the main dialect of China. Mandarin is spoken by 960 million native speakers mainly in the north of China but now, it is used all over mainland China and Taiwan. It is also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
On the other hand, Cantonese is the least spoken. But where is Cantonese spoken? You will hear Cantonese as a local dialect of the south of China, in Guangdong Province (capital of Guangzhou), for example.
As a fun fact, the former name of Guangzhou is ‘Canton,’ which is why their language is called ‘Cantonese.’ Aside from that, it is also the local dialect of southern Guangxi Province, Hong Kong, Macau, and different Chinese diaspora around the world.
In addition, most of the Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong are elders. Although Mandarin can also be used in Hong Kong, you may not want to do that because it is not that positively and widely accepted. However, the Chinese government has recently made it mandatory for people to learn Mandarin.
2. Written Chinese
Have you ever tried writing Chinese characters? Most of us have already seen written Chinese characters. If you are not a native speaker, it may be challenging to write them at first.
Because both dialects share the same ancient Chinese roots and have the same base characters, they might seem the same to a non-speaker. Both are very similar. Mandarin is written using simplified characters set by the Chinese government in the 1950s, while Cantonese prefers traditional Chinese characters rather than simplified.
As a fun fact, a Cantonese speaker can read a text in Mandarin or vice versa and understand what the content is about, but while speaking, they are not mutually intelligible.
3. Spoken Chinese
Spoken Mandarin and Cantonese are mutually unintelligible. What does it mean? People who speak Mandarin will not generally be able to understand people who speak Cantonese, and vice versa.
Both Mandarin and Cantonese speakers have their own distinct way of pronouncing words. Nowadays, they both typically use Standard Chinese or Pǔ tōng huà. It is the standardized version of Mandarin that literally means “common language”. When you come across neighboring countries, you might also hear them as Guó yǔ in Taiwan or Huá yǔ in Singapore.
Writing and reading are two different skills to learn. In the case of Mandarin and Cantonese, there is a misconception that they are the same, but they just differ in pronunciation. Well, they are not. So, what are the differences and similarities of these dialects?
The very important thing that we should learn is Mandarin and Cantonese are both tonal dialects, which means that the tones affect the meaning of the word. The truth about Mandarin and Cantonese is they each have different tones. See the different tones of Mandarin and Cantonese below.
Mandarin has Five (5) different tones and one neutral tone. The neutral tone is a de-emphasized syllable with no tone distinction. These are the following:
- High flat tone
- Rising tone
- Falling-rising tone
- Falling tone
- Neutral tone
Cantonese has six different (6) tones. There are three historical tones and these are usually used for syllables ending in p, t, or k. In total, Cantonese has nine (9) Check the following and compare it to Mandarin.
- High flat tone
- Mid-rising tone
- Mid-flat tone
- Low falling tone
- Low rising tone
- Low flat tone
Learning the tones requires more comprehensive studies, but for now, what is important is you have an idea about the difference between Cantonese and Mandarin when it comes to their tones.
5. Grammatical Structure
When we talk about the grammatical structure, Cantonese and Mandarin are really different. For non-native speakers, it might be easier for you to learn and understand Cantonese because it follows a logical set of patterns. On the other hand, it will be harder for you to learn Mandarin because it often changes its structure based on the emotional meaning and the subject.
Of course, when learning a language, one of the things that you should consider is the usefulness of the language. Which is more useful? Mandarin or Cantonese? You might be asking the same question, so this is something that you should think about.
When you go to China, the businesses and government activities are conducted in Mandarin. In public schools, most students, even Cantonese speakers, are learning Mandarin as a second language. So if you are in mainland China, it will be easier for you to communicate with others because most people are speaking Mandarin.
The case for Cantonese is different. As mentioned above, the majority of people who speak Cantonese are from, Guangdong Province, Guangxi Province, Hong Kong, and Macau. Mandarin in these places is not widely used, therefore if you are planning to go to these places, learning Cantonese is the one that will be useful for you.
When we talk about the usefulness of any language, always consider the country where you are going. What is being widely spoken? What do locals mainly use? These are the two questions that you need to ask yourself.
Cantonese VS Mandarin: Summary
I am sure that you have lots of information acquired above, so let us have a short summary of the similarities and differences between Cantonese vs. Mandarin
Similarities Between Cantonese And Mandarin
- Cantonese and Mandarin are forms of Chinese
- Cantonese has the same roots as written characters with Mandarin
- Cantonese and Mandarin, both are tonal language
Differences Between Cantonese And Mandarin
- Places Where They Are Spoken: Mandarin is spoken in Mainland China, Chinatowns, Taiwan, and Singapore. While Cantonese is spoken in Guangdong Province, Guangxi Province, Hong Kong, Macau, and different Chinese Diaspora.
- Written Chinese between Mandarin and Cantonese: Mandarin uses simplified, while Cantonese mostly uses traditional Chinese characters.
- Spoken Chinese: both 2 languages are mutually unintelligible.
- Tones: Mandarin has five (5) tones, on the other hand, Cantonese has nine (9) Tones including historical tones.
- Grammar Structure: Mandarin often changes its structure based on the emotional meaning and the subject. While Cantonese follows a logical set of patterns. On the other hand, Cantonese will be harder for you to learn.
- Usefulness: Mandarin is used in businesses, government activities, and being taught in school as a second language in China. And Cantonese is used mainly in Hong Kong.