Do you know how to make a sentence in Punjabi? Learn Punjabi verbs and their different forms to write a grammatically correct sentence.
How do you find a verb in the present or past tense? It is a simple question with a simple response. A verb is a word that acts; it takes on different forms depending on the tense. Let’s look at some common Punjabi verbs and their usage in different tenses.
Sidenote: The Ling App has complete grammar guides for the Punjabi language. More of that at the end.
All Forms Of Punjabi Verbs
Verbs are words in a sentence that describe an action and the time the act occurred. Like in other languages, Punjabi verbs are a form of stem verbs. In the example “The student goes to school” “ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਸਕੂਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ” “Vidi’ārathī sakūla jāndā hai” the verb “goes” defines the action of going.
In a sentence, a transitive verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is a word or phrase that gets the verb’s action. The direct object in the sentence “The friends eat cake” the direct object is “cake,” and the verb is “eat.”Direct objects can be found in action and stative verbs, working as transitive verbs. Some of the transitive verbs are below.
|English words||Pronunciation||Punjabi words|
|Turn on||Cālū karō||ਚਾਲੂ ਕਰੋ|
In a sentence, if you are not using a verb with a direct object, it is called an intransitive verb. Only nouns, pronouns, and noun phrases are direct objects. Thus, an intransitive verb is the total opposite of a transitive verb. Some phrases with intransitive verbs are below.
|Airplane’s fly.||Havā’ī jahāza dī uḍāṇa.||ਹਵਾਈ ਜਹਾਜ਼ ਦੀ ਉਡਾਣ|
|Something very bad has happened||Kujha bahuta māṛā hō’i’ā hai.||ਕੁਝ ਬਹੁਤ ਮਾੜਾ ਹੋਇਆ ਹੈ।|
|He emerged to Maria.||Uha mārī’ā kōla ubhari’ā.||ਉਹ ਮਾਰੀਆ ਕੋਲ ਉਭਰਿਆ।|
|He has been waiting for a long time.||Uha labē samēṁ tōṁ uḍīka kara rihā hai.||ਉਹ ਲੰਬੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਤੋਂ ਉਡੀਕ ਕਰ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ।|
Tenses: Present, Past, And Future
Each verb has a tense ਕਾਲ to indicate the moment when the verb’s action occurs. A tense has three forms: present, past, and future. Present tense denotes that the verb’s action occurred or is occurring in the present, past tense indicates that the verb’s action occurred or was occurring in the past, and future tense denotes that the action will occur or would have occurred in the future.
- Present Tense
“I am playing cricket” “ਮੈਂ ਕ੍ਰਿਕਟ ਖੇਡ ਰਿਹਾ ਹਾਂ” “Maiṁ krikaṭa khēḍa rihā hāṁ.” In this example the verb is “playing” “ਖੇਡਣਾ” “Khēḍaṇā.”
“I jumped in the lake” “ਮੈਂ ਝੀਲ ਵਿੱਚ ਛਾਲ ਮਾਰ ਦਿੱਤੀ।“ “Maiṁ jhīla vica chāla māra ditī.” The verb in this example is “jumped” “ਛਾਲ ਮਾਰ ਦਿੱਤੀ” “Chāla māra ditī.”
“I will go to the shop” “ਮੈਂ ਦੁਕਾਨ ‘ਤੇ ਜਾਵਾਂਗਾ” “ñān kaṭayil pēākāṁ.” “Go” “ਜਾਣਾ” “Jāṇā” is the verb in this future sentence.
When you conjugate a verb, it simply means that you change the verb to make a phrase make sense. Correctly conjugated verbs communicate the phrase’s meaning to the reader or listener. In Punjabi, you have to conjugate verbs all the time to communicate diverse meanings.
For beginners, conjugation in Punjabi can be challenging, but it is easy to understand after learning the fundamental concepts. The verb “to be,” which is “ਹੋਣਾ” in Punjabi, is the most crucial weapon in conjugation, as it is in many languages.
In their infinitive (non-conjugated) form, all Punjabi verbs finish in -ਨਾ or -ਣਾ, which is equal to the “to verb” form. To conjugate the verbs, you must remove the -ਨਾ/-ਣਾ ending and replace them with alternative endings.
The main verb, “to be” (ਹੋਣਾ) has its usage in Punjabi phrases and is placed after the sentence with its proper form. The form varies depending on the type of personal pronoun.
Conjugating the verb “to be” in the following present tense is a good example of how important verb conjugation is in grammar. The verb “to be” has to change according to the sentence.
|English words||Pronunciation||Punjabi words|
|I am quiet.||Maiṁ cupa hāṁ.||ਮੈਂ ਚੁੱਪ ਹਾਂ|
|You are quiet.||Tusīṁ cupa hō.||ਤੁਸੀਂ ਚੁੱਪ ਹੋ।|
|He is quiet.||Uha cupa hai.||ਉਹ ਚੁੱਪ ਹੈ।|
|She is quiet.||Uha cupa hai.||ਉਹ ਚੁੱਪ ਹੈ।|
|They are quiet.||Uha cupa hana.||ਉਹ ਚੁੱਪ ਹਨ।|
Learn The Punjabi Language
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If you liked this blog, read more articles on the Punjabi language on “Cheers in Punjabi” and “Punjabi greetings.”