How much do you know about Pakistan Independence Day and the two-nation theory? Or, let’s say, the emergence of Urdu? I bet you think Pakistan is just another country right next to India, but you did not know about its origin and why it became a separate nation. And what’s even more shocking is that these two countries (India and Pakistan) were one piece of land under the British crown ruling but became two separate nations on different days. Yes, you heard me right.
Isn’t that crazy? Read this blog post to get an answer to these mysterious questions about Pakistan’s Independence day. Let’s start with the history of Pakistan to give you an idea about how it all started and discuss more important issues.
History Of Pakistan
Pakistan’s founding was the climax of the battle by Muslims of the South-Asian subcontinent for a different country of their own. Its basis was established after Muhammad bin Qasim subjugated Sindh in 711 A.D. The arrival of Islam further enhanced the historical distinctiveness in the territories of Pakistan and beyond its bounds. Religion played a vital role in the creation of Pakistan and India, so consider this a clue to the climax of the history of Pakistan.
Kot Diji And Indus Valley Civilization
Kot Diji (a pre-historic site) in the Sindh province has offered information of significant value for reconstructing a linked tale of the two nations. The steatite seals of Nal and copper tools and some forms of pot ornamentation show a partial overlap. It also possibly reflects one of the local communities which created the context for the formation of the Indus Valley Civilization.
The discovery of the Gandhara
The discovery of the Gandhara burial culture in Dir and Swat will go a long way in putting light on the era and the Pakistani culture. There are remarkable similarities between the organizations of that great empire of Gandhara and the Mauryan empire of the third century B.C.
Note: Gandhara Art is also one of Pakistan’s most valued properties and has thrived for five hundred years. It resulted from a combination of Indian, Buddhist, and Greco-Roman sculptures.
Influence Of Islam
The influence of Islam on the South-Asian subcontinent was profound and far-reaching. Islam offered not just a religion but a new religion and a new society; hence, a new country was formed later.
A new language, Urdu, emerged to be spoken and written by the Muslims, and it acquired acceptance among the rest of the Indian people. The British raj replaced the Shariah with the Anglo-Muhammadan law, while English substituted Urdu as the official language.
Note: Our Urdu Versus Hindi blog post can help you gain a much further explanation of this.
1857 War of Independence
There was a War of Independence in 1857 that the Indians of the sub-continent took part in to fight British rule, which was a significant failure. The collapse of the War of Independence had terrible effects on the Muslims since the British put all the burden for this tragedy on them.
Role Of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1889)
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1889) witnessed the terrible events of 1857 and attempted to improve the British Muslim ties in the Indian subcontinent. He judged that the Muslims’ safety depended on the acquisition of western education and knowledge. Under his influence, groups were organized across the subcontinent, which constructed educational facilities for teaching knowledge to Muslims. He also opposed the Indian National Congress when it was created in 1885 and recommended that Muslims don’t participate in its activities.
Role Of Hindus And Muslims
Nawab Salimullah Khan formed the Muslim League essentially to safeguard the political rights and interests of the Muslims. The British allowed distinct electorates in the Government of India Act of 1909, reaffirming the Muslim League’s status as an All-India party.
The Khilafat Movement was the first nationwide popular movement to take joint action on a solely Islamic matter. According to Pakistani history, the Hindus established two anti-Muslim activities, the Shudhi and the Sangathan, to convert Muslims to Hinduism. The Muslims supported the Tabligh and Tanzim groups to offset the effect of the Shadhi and Sangathan.
They now desired maintenance of their numerical majority in the Punjab and Bengal, separation of Sindh from Bombay, and formation of Balochistan as a distinct province.
During 1937-39, various Muslim leaders and scholars submitted designs for splitting the subcontinent according to the two-nation theory. (Finally, we get a glimpse of what was in the title all along.) This Pakistani demand strongly appealed to the Muslims of every belief/sect.
Success Of All-India Muslim League
The success of the All-India Muslim League rekindled memories of their previous glories and promised future glory. All-India Muslim League swept all the seats in the Central Legislature, and in the provincial elections likewise, its win was exceptional. The British government despatched a Cabinet Mission to the subcontinent to settle the constitutional stalemate.
Finally, the Cabinet Mission revealed its Plan, which proposed three federal groups, two containing the Muslim majority provinces, united at the center in a loose federation with three subjects. The Muslim League welcomed the idea as a strategic step, intending to accomplish its purpose in the future.
Two Nation Theory
Okay, but what’s the two-nation theory again? Pakistan was founded on the concept of two nation theory. It asserts that Muslims and Hindus are two distinct nations by all definitions and that Muslims need to establish their own country in the parts of India where Muslims predominate so they may live out the noble precepts of Islam. Yes, that’s it, and that’s how the Islamic republic of Pakistan came into being.
Prominent Figures In The History
Here is a list of the national figures recognized by the Pakistanis who have played a unique role in the history of Pakistan. Many Pakistani actors are given the part of these figures in historical dramas.
- Abdur Rab Nishtar
- Aga Khan III
- Allama Muhammad Iqbal
- Bahadur Yar Jung
- Fatima Jinnah
- Fazlul Huq
- G. M. Syed
- Huseyn Suhrawardy
- Jahanara Shahnawaz
- Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba
- Jogendra Nath Mandal
- Khawaja Nazimuddin
- Liaquat Ali Khan
- Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
- Mohammad Ali Jouhar
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah
- Muhammad Arif Khan Rajbana Sial
- Naseer Ahmad Malhi
- Rahmat Ali
- Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan
- Ra’ana Ali Khan
- Shaukat Ali
- Syed Amir-uddin Kedwaii
- Victor Turner
- Zafar Ali Khan
Quaid-I-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
One of the most prominent Muslim nations in the world, Pakistan, serves as a living memorial to Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Despite fierce resistance from the Hindu Congress and the British Government, he brought the Indian Muslims together under the Muslim League. He built a country for them through relentless endeavors, unwavering determination, and fearless bravery.
Quaid-i-Azam, AKA Muhammad Ali Jinnah (born on December 25, 1876), is the nation’s greatest hero and founding father. Pakistan was established as a consequence of his efforts.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah lived his early life in the Indian sub-continent and went to London for higher studies. He finished his legal education in London and felt awful when he returned to Pakistan and saw the Indians helplessly tangled in the shackles of slavery. To help the people, he joined Indian National Congress after looking at the overall condition of people being oppressed.
He had a solid commitment to partisan politics. He wanted Muslims and Hindus to cooperate along. For this reason, he had countless discussions between the two populations. Consequentially, he was designated the Ambassador for Hindu-Muslim Unity.
Later there were political disputes between the Muslims and Hindus who wanted to govern themselves. Therefore, he left the Indian National Congress. He then started trying to create a distinct Muslim group, and the All-India Muslim League accepted him as a member.
His efforts had a crucial role in the development of the Pakistani idea. On March 23, the infamous Pakistan Resolution was adopted. It paved the way for this nation once the British authority withdrew. Quaid-e-Azam served as the nation’s first governor-general. He died unexpectedly (he had tuberculosis for a long time) on September 11, 1948, and was buried in Karachi.
Fatima Jinnah, often known as Madr-e-Millat, or “mother of the country,” is a prominent figure among the organizers of Pakistan’s independence struggle. Fatima was placed under her elder brother’s care after the Jinnah family lost their father in 1901, and Pakistanis love her and sees her as the most influential role model for women.
She finished her degree at Dr. Ahmad Dental College while living in a dormitory. She established her dentistry office in Calcutta in 1923, when females from Muslim homes were not supposed to pursue careers.
She joined the Bombay Provincial Muslim League’s working committee while the All India Muslim League was being formed and remained there until 1947. She was responsible for verifying the All India Muslim Student Federation and the APWA, also known as the All Pakistan Women’s Association. She also contributed significantly to the Mohajirs’ relocation when Pakistan was established.
Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan was committed to diminishing the injustices and cruel treatment the British meted to Indian Muslims. Like the majority of the Muslim leaders of his period, he had an early belief in Indian nationalism.
In May 1924, the Muslim League met in Lahore for its annual session under the direction of Quaid-i-Azam. At this gathering, Liaquat Khan joined many other young Muslims. He began his political career in the U.P. Legislative Assembly in 1926. Later, he established his group inside the Legislative Assembly, the Democratic Party.
Quaid-i-Azam could not participate in the Assembly’s proceedings, so Liaquat was left to defend Muslim interests inside the Assembly. He was a part of the Muslim Masses Civil Defense Committee, established to protect Muslims against Congress operations and advance the League’s objectives.
The Muslim League and Quaid-i-Azam chose Liaquat Ali Khan to lead Pakistan’s government after independence. Being the nation’s first Prime Minister, he had to deal with many of the challenges Pakistan faced in its early years. Additionally, Liaquat Ali was a part of the Muslim Masses Civil Defense Committee, which was established to protect Muslims against Congress operations and advance the League’s objectives.
Under his leadership, Pakistan made its first forays into foreign policy and constitution drafting. In the Legislative Assembly, he delivered the Objectives Resolution.
Celebrate Independence Day Like A Pro
August 14 is a public holiday in Pakistan, with government-organized marches, air displays, and firework displays. You would rarely see any Pakistani wedding on that day because it’s all so crowded already. If you wish to celebrate Pakistan independence day, here’s the perfect guide.
Festivities throughout the nation begin in the months preceding up to August 14. The green and white fairy lights flood the streets, and the country’s flag is seen on terraces, automobiles, and significant monuments.
Flag Hoisting Ceremony
Pakistani flag is hoisted on all the government offices and every house. With white and green as the national colors, the predominant green paint reflects the Muslim majority, and the white color reflects the non-Muslim minority. This religious division is still relevant today. Pakistanis also dress in white or green on this day to commemorate the event.
Paying tribute And Singing National Songs
Formal leaders and heads of government offer homage and prayers at the tomb of Pakistan’s father of the nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in Karachi yearly. Students assemble at colleges to sing the national anthem along with national Independence day songs, participate in poetry contests, and watch videos enhancing the accomplishments of Pakistan.
A sense of national pride unifies everybody. Business owners are equipped with Independence Day t-shirts, green and white ethnic garments, and pins symbolizing Pakistan’s flag. On the roadside, residents may be seen retailing similar products in wood carriages that can be carried from one spot to another.
On the morning of the fourteenth, folks crowd famous Pakistani restaurants (including dhabas) to indulge in the well-known Pakistani breakfast dish, halwa puri. From the night before Independence Day till the next day, Mizar-e-Quaid, Minar-e Pakistan, and relevant monuments are crowded with people shouting Azadi and Pakistan Zindabad while waving flags and blasting patriotic music from their cars.
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