Are you planning to go on a trip for the first time to China, Macau, or Hong Kong? One of the things you should not miss out on is the unique vegetables that you can find only in these places. Have you tried Cantonese Chinese leafy greens stir-fried in oyster sauce? If you have not heard about it before then let's learn the translations for vegetables in Cantonese 蔬菜 (So1 Coi3) in this post!
Cantonese cuisine is one of the most popular Chinese cuisines in the world. The distinguished flavor of this cuisine is lightly cooked fresh Chinese vegetables and meat and sweet sauces. Cantonese cuisine originates from Guangdong Province in Mainland China and Hong Kong. These places are located near the sea, and the lands are mostly flooded, that's why it's suitable for growing crops and rice. This is why the most common ingredients in Cantonese dishes are fresh from the sea and vegetables, which is good in stir-fries.
So, in this blog, we will talk about vegetables in Cantonese. If this is your first time learning Cantonese, don't worry because there is an English translation and pronunciation in every word that you'll know.
Before we go any further, the first word you should learn in this topic is saying the word "vegetable" in Cantonese. Native Cantonese speakers use "蔬菜 (So1 Coi3)" to say vegetables. For some, they might know Chinese vegetables as "Choy Sum." However, if you have encountered the word 蔬菜 (Shūcài), do not be confused because it also means "vegetables" but in Mandarin. Mandarin is another Chinese language that beginners are usually confused about, so if you want to know a bit of Cantonese VS Mandarin.
What is your favorite Cantonese Chinese vegetable dish? If you're a fan of Cantonese cuisine, you surely heard about different delicious dishes such as lo mein, chow fun, and chow mein. These Cantonese dishes are indeed remarkable, but one thing that is present mainly among these dishes is the use of different vegetables as ingredients.
Before we learn about different vegetables in Cantonese, let us first know some Cantonese vegetable dishes. Below are some simple recipes that you can follow.
English Translation: Yu Choy sum in oyster sauce
This recipe is easy to cook because you just need choy sum, vegetable oil, finely chopped garlic, and oyster sauce. When you have these ingredients, blanch the choy sum in a pan of boiling water. Leave it for 30 seconds, drain, and set it aside. After boiling, heat the oil in a wok, or deep pan, then stir-fry the garlic and choy sum. After a few minutes, add the oyster sauce then it's ready for serving.
English Translation: Stir-fried water spinach with shredded chili and fermented tofu
Another popular vegetable dish in Cantonese cuisine is the Stir-fried water spinach with shredded chili and fermented tofu. To make this, you'll be needing a bunch of Chinese water spinach, canola oil, sliced ginger, dried chili peppers, garlic, white fermented tofu, sugar, salt, white pepper, and Shaoxing wine.
To cook this dish, first, you must remove the larger, tough stems from the vegetables and retain the thinner and tender stems. Wash the vegetables thoroughly and drain. Then, heat the oil in the wok then add ginger. After a few seconds, you can add the dried chilies, fermented tofu, garlic, salt, sugar, and white pepper.
Next, stir in the greens and continue to stir fry over high heat. Move the vegetables into a mound in the middle of the wok after approximately a minute. Add the wine around the perimeter of the wok after around 30 seconds of high heat, then quickly distribute your vegetable mound in a circular pattern around the wok to obtain that searing effect. This should last for 15-30 minutes until it's ready to be plated and served.
English Translation: Cantonese Chicken And Vegetable Stir-fry
You should learn another 25-minute cooking time for Cantonese dishes is the Cantonese Chicken And Vegetable Stir-fry. To cook this, prepare olive oil, a pound of thinly-sliced boneless, skinless chicken breast, sliced carrots, bok choy, snow peas, Cantonese light sauce, and cooked rice.
The cooking procedure is simple. First, heat a wok over high heat, then add the oil. After a few seconds, stir-fry the chicken, then transfer it to a plate when it's cooked. Next, wipe the pan and reduce the heat into the medium. This is the time when you add the carrots and water, then stir and wait for it to be tender. Then, you can add the bok choy stem and cook it for 2 minutes. After this, add the bok choy leaves, peas, and Cantonese light sauce while increasing the heat to high. When you can already see bubbles and the sauce thickens, stir-fry the chicken until it's cooked.
English Translation: Lobster with ginger and scallions
The last Cantonese vegetable dish that we will learn is the Lobster with ginger and scallions. This dish has a longer time to prepare since it includes Lobster. So, start with gathering the ingredients first. You'll need some Shaoxing wine or dry sherry, soy sauce, cornstarch, low sodium chicken stock, soft shell lobsters, vegetable, canola, peanut oil, white pepper, salt, ginger, and scallions, green pepper, and chives.
To prepare, first, combine the wine, soy sauce, corn starch in a mixing bowl, then mix it until it is smooth. Then, stir the chicken stock and set it aside. Bring 1 inch of water to a boil in a saucepan or wok fitted with a steamer attachment. Steam it for 3 minutes after adding the lobsters. Remove from the pan and place on a chopping board. Allow cooling slightly before serving.
The next step is with the lobsters. Lobster tails and claws should be twisted off, then rinse the guts out of the lobster head. Split the tails lengthwise in half, then crosswise into thirds to make six pieces. Make sure to transfer it to a large bowl. Remove both knuckles from each paw and place them in the basin with the tails. Then, break off the little side of the claw and place it in the basin. Cut each claw in half to expose the meat and place it in the bowl.
Get a wok and heat it. Season lobster with pepper and salt, then add the remaining cornstarch to the bowl. Then add the lobster pieces carefully, one piece at a time. Fry the Lobster until the cornstarch is crisp and golden brown, then transfer it to a colander.
The final steps include pouring off all but one tablespoon of oil and heating the wok in high heat. This is the time to add the ginger, scallions, yellow chives, and hot pepper, then cook and stir them. Return the Lobster to the pan and toss it around to coat it. Add the wine mixture to the wok and stir well. Cook and constantly stir and toss until the mixture has bubbled and thickened. Finally, put it on a platter, garnish it, then serve.
Vegetables are stapled in Cantonese cuisine. If they are not used for ingredients, they are used as a garnish to make the plating looks nice when served. After learning about Cantonese food and flavors, let's now learn the different vegetables in Cantonese.
The first Cantonese / Chinese vegetable that we will learn is the cabbage 椰菜 (Je4 Coi3). Different types of cabbage are used in various cuisines. Some of the widely used types of cabbage are napa cabbage, Taiwanese cabbage, and savoy cabbage. You can mostly see cabbages in stir-fried dishes, lo meins, and even egg rolls.
The napa cabbage is a vegetable in Cantonese cuisine that originated from the Beijing region of China. It is a pale green, large, and has a very mild flavor. This is one widely used vegetable in Cantonese cuisine, especially in making soups, stir-fries, noodle dishes, dumpling dishes, and slaws.
Potatoes are also one of the essential vegetables in Cantonese cuisine. Some of the most famous Cantonese dishes that use potatoes as the main ingredient are the Cantonese-style stir-fried potatoes and the Braised pork with potato. Fun fact, the official name of potato in Chinese (馬鈴薯 | mǎ líng shǔ) came from 馬鈴(mǎ líng), which is an ancient Chinese horse bell. On the other hand, the word 薯 (shǔ) means "yam."
Carrots are considered one of the healthiest vegetables in Cantonese cuisine. In fact, they have this famous dish called Sweet corn carrot pork bone soup. It's a soup that has lots of nutrients and tastes sweet. Carrots are also shredded and mixed with other ingredients to make dumplings and spring rolls.
We shouldn't miss out on the Cantonese-style cucumber salad when we talked about cucumbers in Cantonese cuisine. Although this dish is more of a Chinese dish, Cantonese cuisine also has its influence. So, cucumber is still worthy of consideration as one of the Cantonese cuisine's essential vegetables.
As mentioned in different blogs related to Cantonese food, stir-frying and steaming are among the most commonly used cooking methods in Cantonese cuisine. This is the reason why onions are one of the essential vegetables in Cantonese cuisine. Onions are usually aromatic and make the natural flavor of food come out. Today, it's impossible to talk about Cantonese cuisine without mentioning onions and their different kinds.
Another essential ingredient in Cantonese cuisine is garlic. It is considered one of the universal ingredients. The majority of our green vegetables are stir-fried in oil with minced garlic and salt. Sometimes because it is a versatile ingredient, you don't know what to do without them.
Another popular dish in Cantonese cuisine is Cantonese Chicken and Mushrooms. This is not the only dish where mushrooms are used as an ingredient. Mushrooms are also mostly mixed in fried rice and soups; that's why it's one of the must-learn vegetables in Cantonese.
Iceberg lettuce with oyster sauce, Stir-Fried Lettuce, Stir-Fried Garlic Lettuce, and Lettuce wraps are examples of how lettuce can do wonders in Cantonese cuisine. Lettuce is also one of the most commonly used leafy vegetables in Cantonese cuisine. It's a healthy way to enjoy minced pork and other fillings.
The type of broccoli used in Cantonese dishes is mostly Chinese broccoli which has long green stems and dark, thick leaves. However, since regular broccoli is the most common one that can be easily found in the market, Cantonese chefs also use them for cooking broccoli dishes.
Now that you have learned the main vegetables in Cantonese let's widen your vocabulary and learn these additional vegetables in Cantonese.
|豆||dau6 dau6*2||beans; peas|
|芽菜||ngaa4 coi3||bean sprout|
|涼瓜||loeng4 gwaa1||bitter melon/ gourd|
|柿子椒||ci5 zi2 ziu1||bell pepper|
|烏豆||wu1 dau2||black beans|
|白菜||baak6 coi3||bok choy|
|椰菜花||je4 coi3 faa1||cauliflower|
|辣椒||laat6 ziu1||chili, pepper|
|蘆筍||lou4 seon2||garden asparagus|
|芥菜||gaai3 coi3||leaf mustard|
|蕃薯||faan1 syu2||sweet potato|
|菠菜||bo1 coi3||spinach / Chinese spinach|
|西洋菜||sai1 joeng4 coi3||watercress|
|翠玉瓜||ceoi3 juk6 gwaa1||zucchini|
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